家得润样板住宅

项目性质:装配住宅
项目地点:北京小汤山
设计时间:2011
建筑面积:350平米
主设计师:朵宁
设计团队:常强,覃立超,黄迪,路阳英

Project Property:Prefabricated Housing
Project Location:XiaoTangShan BeiJing
Design Period:2011
Floor Area:350sqr
Lead Designer:Duo Ning
Design Team:Chang Qang,Qin LiChao,Huang Di,Lu YangYing

这是一个由建筑材料为出发点的致力于可持续性住宅的样板房设计案例。业主家得润是一家生产新建筑材料的公司,设计要求使用的家得润泡塑板是一种轻型结构板,兼顾保温隔热的功效。因此,整栋建筑,从地基到屋顶,从外墙到内墙,全部由一种材料建成。

如何充分发挥这种材料的性能,结合建造施工的特殊步骤,设计一个高度可持续性的住宅,成为我们设计任务的核心议题。

设计的起点是研究这种板材的切割和组装的特点,即数字化激光切割和胶粘连接,结合场地东西狭长且靠近生态实验园外墙的限制条件,以及材料的受力性能,我们的设计策略聚焦为:形体简洁放松,只在开洞和室内空间的序列关系上做文章,采用双层墙的密肋结构体系。最后外立面的开洞,看似随机,实际是根据一系列风动能量分析后设计优化的结果。空间布局上,以大大小小开洞的南墙作为组织各个空间的主轴,比邻内部庭院的双层起居空间为高潮,串联了服务区、庭院区、养生区、储藏区、工作区和就寝区。施工建造的过程,仿佛学生时代手工课上的硬纸插接,节点都是插接的形式。由于材料极轻,不需要大型的起重设备,完全靠人力即可完成。另一个潜在的优势是,即使地震倒塌,也不会造成大的人员伤亡。

建筑的生态设计方面,参考建筑节能的标 准和环保参数,使用主动式清洁能源——太阳 能和生物能回收与被动式节能设计——自然通 风采光以及表面积和体积比,相结合的策略。 此外在系统拓展方面,考虑了建筑住宅原型结 合各种基地要求,规模和形态的灵活多变,基 于工业生产制造的特点,在建筑数字化信息平 台上的多项拓展。

This project is driven entirely by the building material of Jia De Run, who develops and produces new architectural materials. We are required to maximize the use of only one material for this house, Jia De Run Panel, a light sheet material system which intergrates thermal insulation and structure. As a result, not only the foundation and roof, but also the external and partition wall are all built with single uniform material.

Our essential design challenge is how to fullfil the properties of this material in line with the special construction conditions in line with the criteria of sustainable house.

We initiated the design process from studying the way this sheet material is cut and assembled, as well as its structural properties. Other design constrains include the narrow long site along east-west, Therefore our strategy was to simplify the overall form and to only focus on the opennings in relation to the internal spaces and the structural system, i.e. double-wall and ribbed beams. The design optimization based on an air flow analysis resulted the seemingly random opennings on the southern wall, which organised all the spaces along. The material connections are mainly based on interlocking slots. Due to the lightness of the material, there was no need for heavy machines as all could be done by humen. Another potential merit is its resistence to earthquake, i.e. even it collapses, it won’t cause serious casualties.

In the environmental dimension, we applied both clean energy, i.e. solar power and recycled biomass energy, and passive environmental design, i.e. natural ventilation and ratio control between surface area and volume, in reference to the standard and parameters of the ecologic sustainability. This prototyping house can be adapted to different site conditions, morphed into larger aggregations, and multiple modular transformations on the basis of this sheet material and its ways of manufacture and construction.